What proportion of alcoholics eventually achieve abstinence following alcoholism treatment?
Consequently, Field abandoned Horton’s anxiety-reduction view in favor of exploring further the relations between social organization and drunkenness in primitive societies. Or, again, the amorphous social organization depicted by Field may intensify dependency conflict and engender acute problems in sustaining the social solidarity emphasized by Klausner. (1988), selected high-prognosis patients who were socially stable. From 1790 to 1840 adult males drank nearly one-half pint of hard liquor each day, more than at any other time in American history.
An exception is Selden Bacon’s (1945) essay depicting large, highly specialized society as broadly “anomic”—characterized by rapid change, lack of normative integration, compartmentalized social controls, the paradox of heightened individualism and functional interdependence, intense competition, mobility, and impersonality.
This may refer to economic deprivation of individuals or of the country, and the view that intoxication and alcoholism are related to want and economic misery may be valid for certain times and groups and parts of the world. (2000) Time, 156, 47. Alcohol has been used occasionally as an instrument to achieve the submission of and control over others. consensus concerning the definition of alcoholism and the criteria for its diagnosis does not provide a solid conceptual basis to design screening procedures for early detection or casefinding." 10 to the Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Clarification and standardization of substance abuse terminology. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/drinking-and-alcoholism, "Drinking and Alcoholism The London Daily News of December 8, 1869, carried a story on "the deaths of two persons from alcoholism," which according to the Oxford English Dictionary was the first popular use of the word in English. Updates? License to Drink: Can boozers learn moderation ?
Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. A ten-year follow-up survey of acceptability of controlled drinking in Britain. (See also: Addiction: Concepts and Definitions ; Disease Concept of Alcoholism ; Treatment, History of ). It was reasoned, for instance, that drinking tends generally to be accompanied by the release of aggressive and sexual impulses; all societies must to some extent inhibit expression of these impulses, and to reduce impulse-anxiety through alcohol is, in effect, to release the inhibition.
Mc Cabe, R. J. R. (1986). Psychopathological theories. But the broadening of meaning of the term, with much attendant controversy among the advocates of various definitions, has become problematic. Noting the highly inferential nature of Horton’s measures of anxiety, Field introduced new indexes of “fear,” which were thought to be more direct reflections of levels of anxiety, and found no consistent correlation with “extent of drunkenness.” In his reconsideration, the relation between subsistence insecurity and extent of drunkenness seemed more indicative of differences in economy, and hence in social organization, than of strikingly different levels of anxiety. Finney, J. W., & Moos, R. H. (1991). Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. (1985). New York and London: Wiley. Alcoholism, politics, and bureaucracy: The consensus against controlled-drinking therapy in America. Stockholm and Leipzig: C. E. Fritze. As a clue to this, Horton referred to “subsistence anxiety” or insecurity, which he indexed by the type of economy (scaled from hunting through higher agriculture) and by specific subsistence hazards, including the hazards of acculturation. Because of its imprecise meaning, the term alcoholism has for some time now been dropped from the two major official systems of diagnosis of diseases, the International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (1985), however, reported that only 15 percent of all surviving alcoholics seen in hospitals were abstinent at 5 to 7 years. As a counterpoint to this line of development, a growing and increasingly influential literature holds that problems developing in the context of alcohol consumption do not constitute a disease at all (Fingarette, 1988). Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior.
There is moderate drinking, acceptable in many (but not all) human groups; there is excessive drinking, for example, intoxication; there are behavior problems associated with drinking; and there is alcoholism. Drinking and alcoholism will be considered as related but distinct phenomena. Moreover, there is reason to think that significant interrelationships exist among the variables brought to light by these studies. Pages 48–74 in David J. Pittman and Charles R. Snyder (editors), Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns. The use of imported sugar in the distilling process made rum, like wine, more expensive than whiskey. The medical profession was viewed as critical to the success of the effort to increase the nation's concern about the consequences of alcohol consumption. New York and London: Wiley. Drinking in America. SPIRITS. The poor health of most nineteenth-century Americans cannot be separated from their overwhelming consumption of alcoholic beverages. Not included in this category were an additional 4.6 percent of patients who drank without problems but who drank in fewer than thirty of the previous thirty-six months. A Dictionary of Sociology. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 20: 245–254.
Yet, weaving the basic notion of anxiety reduction into a larger complex of psychocultural assumptions, he derived some important theorems, enabling indirect tests of his basic proposition on a sample of 56 culturally distinct societies thought to represent a cross section of primitive societies throughout the world (Horton 1943). Pages 594–600 in David J. Pittman and Charles R. Snyder (editors), Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns. Snyder, Charles R. 1958 Alcohol and the Jews, Glencoe, III. Field, Peter B. New En-land Journal of Medicine, 325, 775-782. A drunken Noah (Genesis 9:20-28) is one of a long line of such literary descriptions. Mild alcohol intoxication causes a relaxed and ca…, ALCOHOL. However, the date of retrieval is often important. How do untreated and treated alcoholics compare in their controlled-drinking and abstinent-remission ratios? New York: Wiley. At the bottom of the modern urban social structure lies “Skid Row,” which is increasingly an object of study and concern on the part of social scientists (for example, Jackson & Connor 1953; Pittman & Gordon 1958; Rubington 1958; Bogue 1963). In N. C. Chong & H. M. Cho (Eds. alcohol, denatured Kalant, Harold 1962 Some Recent Physiological and Biochemical Investigations on Alcohol and Alcoholism: A Review. In 1943 the Yale Summer School of Alcohol Studies was established to train persons interested in this field, and in 1945 the National Council on Alcoholism was organized to disseminate information to the general public. However, it was not until the 1930s in the United States that a large-scale movement with a treatment orientation toward alcoholism first took shape, with the appearance of Alcoholics Anonymous in 1934 and the establishment of an American Research Council on Alcoholism four years later. Syme, Leonard 1957 Personality Characteristics and the Alcoholic: A Critique of Current Studies. One is that the problems people experience are complex, including those that may arise in the context of alcohol use. . Finney and Moos (1991) reported a 17 percent "social or moderate drinking" rate at six years and a 24 percent rate at ten years. Pages 104–121 in Raymond G. McCarthy (editor), Alcohol Education for Classroom and Community. Many patients ultimately... 3. Chronische Alkoholskrankheit oder Alcoholismus Chronicus (Alcoholismus chronicus or the chronic alcohol disease). One needs to know not only about individual tensions and frustrations but also about the group’s methods of coping and its attitudes toward and perception of alcohol. The favorite mood-altering drug in the United States, as in…, Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) represents a preventable pattern of clinical abnormalities that develop during embryogenesis (the developmental stages s…, denatured alcohol Peele, S. (1987). The image of Indians inebriated on government annuity payments stirred the resentment of whites, fueling the stereotype of “the drunken Indian” that had started during the colonial period. The disease concept of alcoholism. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 11-17. There is no all-embracing explanation of alcoholism in sight, but if one begins with a distinction between alcoholism and problems related to alcohol, if one is aware of the need for a classification of variants within the diagnosis of alcoholism, and if one is willing to include physiological, psychological, and social variables in an explanation of etiology, some ground is cleared. In most countries treatment is more or less voluntarily undertaken.
Three British groups (Elal-Lawrence, Slade, & Dewey, 1986; Heather, Rollnick, & Winton, 1983; Orford & Keddie, 1986) Pages 189–212 in Marshall E. Clinard (editor), Anomie and Deviant Behavior: A Discussion and Critique. Although the available data are insufficient to permit exact international comparisons, alcoholism rates for a dozen countries estimated by means of the Jellinek formula for various years in the decade following World War ii show the following rank order (from higher to lower): France, United States, Chile, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, Norway, Finland, Australia, England and Wales, Italy (Alcoholism Research Foundation of Ontario 1958).
About half (49 percent) of those in remission still drank. identified a sizable group (12%) of former alcoholics who drank a threshold of seven drinks four times in a single month over the previous three years but who reported no adverse consequences or symptoms of alcohol dependence and for whom no such problems were uncovered from collateral records. For the most part, recent sociological investigation of drinking in complex society has focused on diverse, fragmentary problems, such as the examination of drinking patterns and pathologies of ethnic groups, age and sex categories, and socioeconomic strata, or has aimed at delimiting the parameters and gross social correlates of drinking through surveys of drinking behavior and attitude among state, regional, or national populations (for example, Gadourek 1963; Lawrence & Maxwell 1962; Mulford & Miller 1960). . New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Alcoholism is a behaviour pattern characterized by uncontrolled drinking of alcoholic beverages to the extent of impairing health and social functioning. The importance of definitional criteria is evident in a highly publicized study (Helzer el al., 1985) that identified only 1.6 percent of treated alcoholism patients as "moderate drinkers." In M. Galanter (Ed.
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