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The bark is the protective covering of tree branches, trunks, and roots. The bark is formed as a result of the secondary growth in the plants. Unappetizing Layer – The outer bark of trees is indigestible and unpalatable, which discourages insects and animals from eating it.

Cork cell walls contain suberin, a waxy substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem, and prevents infections by bacteria and fungal spores. A number of living organisms live in or on bark, including insects,[23] fungi and other plants like mosses, algae and other vascular plants. Notably, bark contributes essentially to sap distribu-tion in the plant. (i) Due to the presence of suberin in the walls of cells water cannot enter into them.

Wood bark contains lignin; when it is pyrolyzed (subjected to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen), it yields a liquid bio-oil product rich in natural phenol derivatives.

Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Quercus robur bark with a large burl and lichen.

Layered outer bark, containing cork and old, dead phloem, is known as rhytidome. Cork can contain antiseptics like tannins, that protect against fungal and bacterial attacks that would cause decay. Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. The bark is a waterproof protective layer present on the trees to prevent the loss of water through evaporation. 2003. The inner bark is composed of living tissues, which help translocate the sugars created in the leaves to other parts of the plant. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Corrections? The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost layer of the periderm. Alder bark (Alnus glutinosa) with characteristic lenticels and abnormal lenticels on callused areas. Bark chips generated as a by-product of lumber production are often used in bark mulch in western North America. Thus, the dead cells form a hard layer around the stem. Cork, sometimes confused with bark in colloquial speech, is the outermost layer of a woody stem, derived from the cork cambium. The bark is the outer covering of a tree’s trunk and branches. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma and fibers.

Cut logs are inflamed either just before cutting or before curing. The bark is the outermost covering of stems and roots of old plants. The phenol derivatives are isolated and recovered for application as a replacement for fossil-based phenols in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins used in Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and plywood.[22]. The bark of some trees notably oak (Quercus robur) is a source of tannic acid, which is used in tanning. Bark has been used to make cloth, canoes, and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. The inner bark, which in older stemsis living tissue, includes the innermost layer of the periderm. This helps keep the inner bark from drying out and ensures the plant can continue to move sugars from the leaves to where they are needed.

Bark also transports food and water throughout the tree. pausas' blog " Bark thickness: a world record? In some plants, the bark is substantially thicker, providing further protection and giving the bark a characteristically distinctive structure with deep ridges.

[clarification needed] Such logs and even trunks and branches found in their natural state of decay in forests, where the bark has fallen off, are said to be decorticated. The function and purpose of bark. [14] This could mean that the concentration and type of lignin units could provide additional resistance to fungal decay for plants protected by bark.[12]. As the stems grow a layer of cells form under the epidermis, called the cork cambium, these cells produce cork cells that turn into cork. The Sami people of far northern Europe used large sheets of Pinus sylvestris bark that were removed in the spring, prepared and stored for use as a staple food resource and the inner bark was eaten fresh, dried or roasted. Severe bark damage will kill the tree. The patterns left in the bark of a Chinese Evergreen Elm after repeated visits by a Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker (woodpecker) in early 2012. The skin on the potato tuber (which is an underground stem) constitutes the cork of the periderm., Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Tree Bark, bark - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), bark - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).

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