In several of his books – such as King Matthew the First (1923), When I am Small Again (1925), and the short theoretical work The Child’s Right to Respect (1929) – Korczak stressed the social conflict between child and adult in a situation when power and control are in the hands of the adult, even when the adult does not understand or refuses to understand the child’s world, and deliberately deprives the child of his or her due. In 1911-1912 he became a director of Dom Sierot (House of the Orphans), a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw. When he gave up his career in literature and medicine, he changed his name to Janusz Korczak, a pseudonym derived from a 19 th century novel, Janasz Korczak and the pretty Swordsweeperlady. He was born in Warsaw to an assimilated Jewish family. In 1914 Korczak was again called up for military service in the Russian army, and it was in military hospitals and bases that he wrote his important work How to Love Children. From the very beginning of the war, Korczak took up activities among the Jews and Jewish children. During the first months of the occupation, the number of children in the orphanage increased because it was necessary to receive children who lost their families during the bombing. They ought to gain weight – I have no idea why they were given raw carrots for supper last night.”. Nothing is known of their last journey to Treblinka, where they were all murdered by the Nazis. Among his most influential works we find: "How to Love the Child" (1921), "King Matt the Reformer" (1928), "The Child's Right to Respect" (1929) and, "Rules for Living" (1930). They marched in rows to the Umschlagplatz (collection point), with Korczak at the head holding the hand of a child. He always refused these offers saying that he could not abandon his children. For any questions/clarifications/problems, please contact:, Emanuel Ringelblum: The Man and the Historian, Fighting for Her People: Zivia Lubetkin, 1914–1978, Copyright © 2020 Yad Vashem. During the occupation and the period he spent in the ghetto, Korczak kept a diary. At the end of November 1939, the German authorities forced every Jew to wear a white armband with a blue Star of David. Korczak refused to wear the armband or remove his Polish officer uniform even though he had been imprisoned for some time. In 1939, when World War II erupted, Korczak was going to volunteer for duty in the Polish Army but due to his age he stayed with the children in Warsaw. The Yad Vashem website had recently undergone a major upgrade! In the late 1920’s, he was able to put into effect his long-time plan to establish a newspaper for children as a weekly added to the Jewish daily in the Polish language, Nasz Przeglad – it was written by children, who related their experiences and their deepest thoughts.

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